What is Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 2 Diabetes is also known as adult-onset Diabetes . Type 2 Diabetes is defined as a lifelong disease that keeps your body from using insulin the way it should. People with type 2 Diabetes are said to have insulin resistance.

Type 2 Diabetes mainly occurs in middle-aged adults and is the most common form of Diabetes.  There are about 29 million people in the U.S. with type 2 Diabetes.

Causes of Type 2 Diabetes start in the pancreas due to its insufficient use of the hormone, insulin. At first, the pancreas makes more insulin to try to get glucose into your cells. But eventually, it can’t keep up, and glucose builds up in your blood instead.




A recruiting study in phase 2 aims to use both bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNC) and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSC) in order to treat patients with Type 2 diabetes. The researchers will gather 60 participants; half of which will be injected with the treatment while the other half will be given a placebo. The purpose of the trial is to measure C-peptide levels, blood glucose levels, hemoglobin changes, and any adverse events.



Efficacy and Safety of Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transplantation in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

This is another phase 2 recruiting trial that consists of 3 weeks of early screening and lifestyle education, 6 week treatment period, and a follow-up that will last for about 18 weeks. One group will receive the treatment of umbilical cord stem cells while another group will receive a placebo of saline containing human albumin. The researchers aim to measure blood sugar levels, as well as the level of reduction in insulin treatment.



Stem Cells From Human Exfoliated Teeth in Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

A completed study in early phase 1 uses stem cells from human exfoliated teeth to establish a scientific theory to further trials with this kind of treatment. Patients were given this form of treatment three times within the span of a month. Along with the stem cell treatment, patients were also continuing use of insulin intake along with hypoglycemic drugs. The goal of the trial was to reduce daily insulin intake, and measure blood sugar intake.




Autologous Stem Cell and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (HOT)

A phase 2 completed study looks into using hyperbaric oxygen therapy, which is pure oxygen treatment in a controlled environment, along with an autologous stem cell injection straight to the pancreas. This study is based off a previous trial with the same controls that showed high improvement in B-cell regeneration and C-peptide levels with a reduction in plasma glucose. This study is split into two groups, one group which receives the treatment and another that will receive standard medical treatment. The results of this study came back to show that no participants had any adverse events. The researchers were also looking to measure blood sugar levels; these results show that the participants levels did not increase or reduce. These results tell us that this trial is a potential for new diabetes treatment and should be looked into more.



Outcomes of Expanded Autologous Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Therapy in Type II Diabetes (ASD2)

Another completed study in phase 2 uses only treated bone marrow derived stem cells in order to treat type 2 diabetes. BM-MSC’s are known to target tissues that are resistant to insulin. The researchers aim to improve cytokine development, insulin resistance, regenerate B-cells, and reduce high blood sugar. This is a single group assignment where every participant will receive 2 treatment of BM-MSCs taken from each person’s iliac crest. The results of the study show promising improvement where more than half of the group did not require so much insulin intake and could maintain a normal blood sugar level. The researchers believe this to be a promising treatment that needs to be studied again for a longer duration period.




Stem Cell Educator Therapy in Diabetes

This phase 2 completed study takes the blood of participating patients to be circulated through a blood cell separator in order to coculture the patients’ immune cells with cord blood stem cells in vitro (in the lab). The lymphocytes that are “educated”, meaning they have taken on the characteristics of the stem cells, are delivered back to the patient after this procedure. The results of this trial came back to show that the treatment was well tolerated for all patients with no adverse effects, and increasing levels of C-peptide and other co-stimulating molecules. This trial was done on both T1D and T2D patients.



Stem Cell Educator Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes

Another completed study that uses stem cell educator therapy that helps to further prove the usefulness and reliability of this treatment. Done only on T2D patients, this study also educates the patients lymphocytes with cord blood stem cells. The results of this study also came back to show that no adverse events took place, insulin sensitivity and C-peptide levels both improved. This trial furthers the point that stem cell educator therapy can be a safe and reliable way to treat diabetes.



Bone Marrow Derived Stem Cell Transplantation in T2DM

This phase 3 trial takes autologous bone marrow derived stem cells and expands them into culture to be transplanted into each patients’ pancreas. The researchers believe this will reduce insulin requirement by at least 50% over a period of 6 months. This trial is comparing stem cell treatment with a placebo-controlled group. The results of this experiment were very promising: seven patients showed a reduction in insulin by 75%, three patients became completely insulin independent, and there was significant improvement in C-peptide levels for all the patients in the experimental group. The researchers indicate that this treatment is safe and effective, but a more large-scale trial needs to be done to substantiate the treatment.



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